Think of them as the future of passwords
"Who are you? Websites ask that all the time, though not in so many words. Instead, they require passwords, or your mother's maiden name or a code sent via text. Sometimes you also have to prove you're not a robot by deciphering distorted letters.
These authentication efforts are all part of a new cybersecurity ethos called 'zero trust,' one pillar of which is this: Never assume you know someone's true identity based on just their IP address or email password. Hence the growing popularity of multi-factor authentication..."
Authentication will see a surge of evolution this year
"The future of authentication does not include more complex passwords or passphrases or better multifactor authentication. Not at all.
Authentication likely sees a surge of evolution in the background; such developments that are invisible to the user. These developments are likely to focus on continuous monitoring and frictionless interaction: identifying risk- and behaviour-based authentication..."